Typographical Conventions

In what follows, we shall use the following typographical conventions:

  • Characters written in bold typewriter font are commands to be typed into the computer as they stand.
  • Characters written in italic typewriter font indicate non-specific file or directory names.
  • Words inserted within square brackets, e.g. [Ctrl], indicate keys to be pressed.

So, for example:

ls anydirectory [Enter]

means "at the UNIX prompt %, type ls followed by the name of some directory, then press the key marked [Enter]." Don't forget to press the [Enter] key: commands are not sent to the computer until this is done.

Note: UNIX is case-sensitive, so "LS" is not the same as ls. The same applies to filenames, so myfile.txtMyFile.txt and MYFILE.TXT are three separate files. Beware if copying files to a PC, since DOS and Windows do not make this distinction.

M.Stonebank@surrey.ac.uk, © November 2002. Modified for ARCS February 2012.